During the First World War, the despotism and arrogance of Europe's colonial powers in the Islamic world was revealed once more. Particularly the British and Germans exploited the conflicts between Arabs and Ottomans for their own power interests. Max von Oppenheim, an envoy of Wilhelm II, the German Emperor, is supposed to have triggered a "jihad" against the British and French with the help of Turkish allies, in order to destabilise the colonies of the opponents of the German Empire. The Arab Muslims, however, did not follow Max von Oppenheim, but the charismatic "Lawrence of Arabia". Acting on behalf of Britain, he encouraged the Arabs to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, with money, weapons and the promise of independence.